PINT and the path to the perfect palaeointensity
Liverpool Geomag Group
Andy Biggin's homepage
Welcome to the homepage of the
PINT Database. This database of absolute
palaeointensity measurements is maintained by
Andy Biggin in
the Department of Earth, Ocean and Ecological Sciences at the
University of Liverpool
in the U.K.
Important Note: The content of this database and associated compilations has been produced by the managers
(current and past) based on their reading of
the given source references. Every attempt has been made to ensure accuracy and this
has occasionally involved recalculation of parameters from
those originally published. Furthermore, the nature of the content, derived as it is from a very diverse set of sources,
implies that it may not be free from the subjective bias of the manager. Users and, in particular, authors of
the primary sources are strongly encouraged to raise any issues directly with the
here to access the latest version
(2015.05) of PINT via a queryable interface.
to download the latest version of PINT (2015.05) as an MS Excel spreadsheet.
The PINT database was
most-recently described in Biggin et al. (2010, Eos, 91,
most-recently analysed in Biggin et al. (2009, Earth
Planets Space, 61, 9-22). Both papers are available from
and we would be grateful if you could cite the 2009 paper when you refer to the database in a published study.
All new PINT data are
analysed using the QPI
criteria as outlined in Biggin & Paterson (2014,
Frontiers in Earth Sciences 2:24. doi: 10.3389/feart.2014.00024).
A PDF of the paper can also be found here.
A wiki for the QPI criteria can be found
Background and information
aim of the PINT database is to catalogue all absolute
palaeointensity data with ages > 50 ka which have been
published in the peer-reviewed literature. The data is
provided at the cooling unit level or, in the case of large
intrusions, at the sampling site level. In some cases, the
data provided in the publication only allows averages of
multiple cooling units to be given. In such cases, this
should be a
Superceded results are
NOT removed from the database and duplicated measurements are NOT combined. If two or more mean measurements (produced
using different methods for example) are published for a
single cooling unit then each go into the database
separately. In all such cases, this should be apparent from
the associated entry in the COMMENTS the associated entry in the COMMENTS Field.
The 2003 version of the IAGA absolute palaeointensity database
was described in detail by Perrin & Schnepp (2004; PEPI 147, 255-267). It was updated through late 2006 by Lisa
Tauxe (Tauxe, L. and Yamazaki, T, 2007. Paleointensities, in: Treatise
on Geophysics, Schubert, G. (ed.), vol. 5, Geomagnetism, 509-564, Oxford:
Elsevier Ltd.) and since then by
Biggin (with help from various people - see updates).A new website for PINT with a
queryable interface was created in July, 2009. A big thank you to
for writing the code for the interface and assisting with its
formerly included in PINT 2003, with ages less than 50 kyr
are excluded from the latest version as these are now all included in the GEOMAGIA50
database. A copy of the 2003 database compiled by
Mireille Perrin and still containing the 0-50ka data is
An alternative version of this
database is maintained by the
Geophysical Observatory. Most PINT data are already in the MagIC
database and new data will continue to be uploaded.
Please let me
know if you spot any mistakes / omissions or have any suggestions
PINT has been updated to version 2015.05 so it now has 41 additional
palaeointensity estimates from 5 new references and many more MagIC links.
PINT has been updated to version 2014.01 with 85 new
palaeointensity estimates from 11 references.
7th July, 2013: Th
of PINT has also been updated to include hyperlinks to MagIC
records via the DOIs of the published references. To access
these, "include references" in your search and click on
entries in the MagIC column. Thanks to Rupert Minnett, Nick
Jarboe, and Xiao Wang for their help with linking the two
29th May, 2013:
The of PINT was updated with hyperlinks to MagIC
records via the DOIs of the published references. More DOIs
are on the way and the interface
will also be updated with these links in the near future.
15th August, 2012:
new data from
14 references were added to the database and a number of corrections were made
(contact me if you would like details). Thanks go to Elliot Hurst (University
of Liverpool) for helping with this. Thanks also to Valera Shcherbakov for
providing the latest version of the BorokPINT database
3rd December, 2010:
178 new data from
11 references were added to the database and a number of corrections were made
(contact me if you would like details). Thanks go to Ashley Clarke (University
of Liverpool) for doing this update as part of his MESci final year project.
29th July, 2009:
145 new data from
11 references were added to the database. Thanks go to Andy Roberts (University
of Liverpool) for help with this.
10th June, 2009: 42 new data from 3
references were added.
It was realised that the data carried over
from PINT03 in the AGE, DAGE, SLAT, and SLONG fields were truncated after
1 decimal place (thanks to Leah Ziegler for pointing this out). This was rectified.
For the sake of consistency with the rest
of the database, a number of values in the 'DF' field known to record
estimates of the standard error of the mean palaeointensity were
replaced with a calculated sample standard deviation (the more usual
'error' quoted with mean palaeointensity estimates). This change was made
to the 578 records associated with reference numbers 2,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,15,16,17,76,84,85,86,87,114,138,153,154,172.
15th August, 2008: A comparison with
the 'BorokPINT' database (available from here)
led to the addition of 217 new data from 14 references.